Classifying Australian Garden Styles


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This post follows from the post: Index to Heritage Gardens

This post uses an evidence-based typology from established sources.and is still under construction.
Theories of Garden Styles are elaborated far below...

Sources of Australian Garden Styles


Title
Author
Publisher
City
Date
Media Type
Search Code
Styles Listed
1.
The Garden of Ideas: Four Centuries of Australian Styles
Richard Aitken
Miegunyah Press
Melbourne
2011
Book
GOI
9
2.
The Great Gardens of Australia
Howard Tanner, Jane Begg
Macmillan
South Melbourne
1976
Book
GGA
12
3.
The Open Garden: Australian Gardens...
Louise Earwaker, Neil Robertson
Allen & Unwin
St Leonards, Sydney
2000
Book
OGA
6
4.
Period Gardens: Landscapes for Houses with History
Myles Baldwin, Simon Griffiths (photography)
Murdoch Books
Millers Point, Sydney
2008
Book
PG
8
5.
Gardens in Australia
Sarah Guest, Simon Griffiths (photography)
New Holland
Sydney
2013
Book
GIA
27
6.
Australia's Timeless Gardens
Judith Baskin, Trish Dixon
National Library of Australia
Canberra
1996
Web
ATG
9
7.
Garden Style
Penelope Hobhouse
Georgian House
Melbourne
1988
Book
GS
6
8.
Planting Dreams: Shaping Australian Gardens
Richard Aitken
NewSouth Press, State Library NSW
Sydney
2016
Book
PD
9

Source 1: The Garden of Ideas: Four Centuries of Australian Styles (GOI)

No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
Source
Code
Page
Date
0.
Imagining the Australian Garden
Temperate
Visionary
English
Slopes and Plains
Rural
high

GOI
pp.1-28
1600s-1800s

1.
Parkland
Temperate
Landscape
English
Slopes and Plains
Rural
high

GOI
pp.29-50
1600s-1800s

2.
Colonial Modernism
Temperate
Picturesque
English
Plains
Townscape
high

GOI
pp.51-78
1780s-1820s

3.
Botanical virtuosity
Temperate
Horticulture
English
Gardens and Estates
Town and Country
high
Nineteenth Century: food and botanical influences
GOI
pp.79-100
1830s-1850s

4.
Scenic effect
Temperate
Picturesque
English
Gardens and Estates
Town and Country
high

GOI
pp.101-130
1860s-1880s

5.
Cities, Gardens and Beauty
Temperate
Picturesque
English
Cities and Gardens
Townscape and Gardens
high

GOI
pp.131-156
1880s-1920s

6.
Modernism, Functionalism and Naturalism
Temperate
Gardenesque
English
Cities and Gardens
Towns and Cities
moderate to high

GOI
pp.157-182
1920s-1960s

7.
Australian-plant gardens
Temperate
Nationalism
Australian
Cities and Gardens
Towns and Cities
low to moderate
A Short History of Australian Garden Design
GOI
pp.183-208
1920s-1970s

8.
Many varieties of Gardens
Temperate and Tropical
Gardenesque
Australian
Cities and Gardens
Towns, Cities and Rural
low to high

GOI
pp.209-227
1980s-2010s

Source 2: The Great Gardens of Australia(GGA)

No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
SourceCode
Page
Date
1.
Plant introduction
Temperate
Visionary
English
Coastal
Orchard
High

GGA
pp.10-11
1780s-1840s

2.
Sydney Botanic Gardens
Temperate
Horticulture
English
Coastal
Botanic
Medium-High

GGA
pp.12-16
1816

3.
Squared gardens, Cottage Gardens
Temperate
Vernacular
English
Townscapes
Towns and Cities
Medium-High
A Short History of Australian Garden Design
GGA
pp.17-20
1780s-1830s

4.
Thomas Shepherd, Landscape Movement
Temperate
Landscape, Picturesque
English
Rural
Towns and Rural
Medium
Thomas Shepherd's pioneering Lectures on Landscape
GGA
pp.21-24
1820s-1840s

5.
The Picturesque
Temperate
Landscape, Picturesque
English
Townscapes, Rural Estates
Towns and Rural
Medium
Picturesque - Wikipedia
GGA
pp.25-26
1800s-1850s

6.
Alexander Macleay, Horticultural Societies and Gardenesque
Temperate
Horticulture
English
Botanic Gardens
Towns, Cities
High
Alexander Macleay - Wikipedia; Picturesque and Gardenesque Styles 1790; Alexander Macleay as recounted to Camellia News; 'Alexander Macleay from Scotland to Sydney’ by Derelie Cherry;
GGA
pp.27-29
1826-1836

7.
Mid Century - The Triumph of the Gardenesque
Temperate
Horticulture, Gardenesque
English
Townscapes
Towns, Cities
High

GGA
pp.30-33


8.
Victorian Pleasure Grounds
Temperate
Gardenesque
English
Cities
Towns, Cities


GGA
p.34


9.
The Hill Stations
Dry - Temperate
Landscape
English
Rural
Hills
Dry-Medium

GGA
pp.35-36


10.
William Guilfoyle, the Melbourne Botanic Gardens and the Grand Landscape
Temperate
Landscape
English
Cities, Rural
Hills and Plains
Medium
William Guilfoyle
GGA
pp.37-41


11.
Landscape of the Dead
Temperate
Landscape
English
Cities
Towns, Cities
Low

GGA
p.42


12.
The Suburban Garden, a 20th Century phenomenon
Temperate
Vernacular
Australian
Town and City
Towns, Cities
Low-Medium

GGA
p.43


13.
The Edwardian Garden
Temperate
Colonial, Mediterranean, Georgian
European, English
Town and City
Towns, Cities
Medium-High

GGA
p.44


14.
The Bush Garden
Temperate
Landscape
Australian
Town
Rural, Town and City
Low

GGA
p.45-46


15.
Edna Walling and Ellis Stones
Temperate
Natural
Australian
Town, Rural
Town, City and Rural
Low
Edna Walling; Ellis Stones
GGA
p.48


16.
Sydney Designers
Temperate
Garden Rooms
European
Town, Rural
Town and Rural
Low-Medium

GGA
pp.49-50


17.
The Australian Garden Today
Temperate
Landscape
Natural
Town, City
Towns and Cities
Low

GGA
p.52


Source 3: The Open Garden: Australian Gardens (OGA)

No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
Source
Code
Page

0.
Informal
Harsh
Inland
English
Plains
Rural
Medium
Open Gardens Australia
OGA
p.x


1.
Historic
Temperate
Cool Climate
English
Plains
Rural
Medium
William Guilfoyle
OGA
p.1


2.
Natural
Temperate
Horticulture
Australian
Varied
Towns
Medium
Michael McCoy
OGA
p.42


3.
Tropical
Tropical
Warm humid
Asian
Coastal
Coastal
Medium-High
Dennis Hundscheidt
OGA
p.80


4.
Framed
Temperate
Picturesque
Formal
Townscape
Towns
Medium
Penny Rudduck
OGA
p.114


5.
Battler
Harsh
Desert
Hardship
Plains
Inland
Low
Geoff Miers
OGA
p.150


6.
Native
Dry
Natural
Australian
Varied
Inland
Low
Merv Hodge
OGA
p. 206


Source 4: Period Gardens: Landscapes for Houses with History (PG)
No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
Source
Code
Page

1.












Source 5: Gardens in Australia (GIA)

No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
Source
Code
Page

1.












Source 6: Australia's Timeless Gardens (ATG)

No.
Name
Climate
Genre
Tradition
Topography
Setting
Water Use
Reference
Source
Code
Page

1.
Picturesque
Temperate
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Medium

ATG
pp.16-19


2.
Gardenesque
Temperate
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Medium

ATG
pp.20-22


3.
Cottage Garden
Temperate
Utilitarian
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Medium

ATG
pp.23-24


4.
Dry Climate
Temperate
Landscape
Englsih
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low

ATG
pp.25-26


5.
Tropical
Tropical
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low

ATG
pp. 27-31


6.
Victorian
Temperate
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low

ATG
pp.32-34


7.
Botanic Gardens
Temperate
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low-Medium

ATG
p.35


8.
William Guilfoyle
Temperate
Landscape
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
low-Medium

ATG
pp.36-38


9.
Cottage Garden
Temperate
Utilitarian
English
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low-Medium

ATG
pp.37-48


10.
Federation Garden
Temperate
Suburban
Australian
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low-Medium

ATG
pp. 49-52


11.
Formal Garden
Temperate
Suburban and Rural
Australian
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low-Medium

ATG
pp.53-55


12.
Native mixed Gardens
Temperate
Suburban, City
Australian
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Low

ATG
pp.56-58


13.
Gardenesque
Temperate
Suburban, Homestead
Australian
Hills and Plains
Town and City
Medium

ATG
pp.59-61


14.
Edna Walling
Temperate
Landscape
Australian
Hills and Plains
City, Rural
Medium

ATG
pp,62-64


15.
Jocelyn Brown
Temperate
Landscape
English
Town
Township
Medium

ATG
pp.65


16.
Paul Sorenson
Temperate
Landscape
Horticulture
Mountains,Plains
Rural
Low

ATG
pp.65-66


17.












Source 7: Garden Style (GS)
No.
Name
Water
Class
Visual Dominance

Climate
Topography
Genre
Search
Code
Page

1.












Source 8: Planting Dreams: Shaping Australian Gardens (PD)

No.
Name
Water
Class
Visual Dominance

Climate
Topography
Genre
Search
Code
Page

1.












Garden Genres


Stephanie Ross, in her book '**What Gardens Mean**' (p.82) writes:[1]
Stephanie Ross, from her book 'What Gardens Mean' (p.82)
Stephanie Ross, from her book 'What Gardens Mean' (p.82)

Stephanie Ross, from her book 'What Gardens Mean' (p.82)


Dominance


Ross Nevette, author of the blog "Landscape Design" argues that the most obvious way of defining gardens, would be to look for the defining dominance in the design of the garden.
  • Plant dominance - Where the garden's essence is about the plants themselves
    (Tropical, Indigenous/native, English Country, Natural, Collector, Alpine, Cool Climate, Desert)
  • Concept dominance - These gardens revolve around an idea or concept
    (Zen, Feng Shui, Modern, National)
  • Structure dominance - These gardens have strong shape and/or geometry
    (Formal, Contemporary, Minimalist, Geometric, Knot, Parterre)
  • Function dominance - Where the function of the garden takes precedence
    (Lawn for playing, Parking Area, Patio, Kitchen, Orchard, Flower picking, forestry)

This defining dominance would be primarily visual.
    • I have added examples (in Italics) above.

Academic Styles


As the indomitable Gertrude Jekyll said when writing about
  • line, form and group... "if these qualities are secured, the result in after years will be a poem; if they are neglected they will be nothing but a crop!"[2]

The Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens argues that the particular characteristics, or common determinants, upon which differences in style are judged are the use of
  • FORM: conventions, materials, techniques, motifs, relationships between forms or motifs, and qualities of expression. [3] reduced to
    • components - both built and plant features
    • arrangements - layouts
    • characters - ambiance, visual qualities,
      and

  • CONTENT:
    • philosophies, beliefs, ideas and intentions behind the above forms.


The Three Styles


Three assemblages of styles are perceived in A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture:

    • Popular Styles: when elements of one or more contrived styles are borrowed or used, such as
      • Sometimes these are used anachronistically, incorrectly, incompletely, or out of context
        e.g. French or Italian garden styles in Australia, window boxes.

    • Vernacular (by the ordinary people of a country or region)
      by stable, self-sufficient (local) communities where choice is severely limited; and sound design solutions have evolved by trial and error.
      • Community Gardening, Rockery Gardens, Pot plant gardens, Roof top gardens, cactus gardens.



Design Fundamentals


The Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens allows that a fundamental three-fold design system is used to describe gardens and landscapes:
  • Informal - irregular, romantic such as Cottage Gardens and Bush Gardens;
    Loudon's* style:Modern (informal, naturalistic);Kemp'sstyle:Gardenesque (mixed, middle style)
  • Formal - regular, classical, such as Italianate, and City Beautiful;
    Loudon's style: Ancient, Kemp's style: Geometric
  • Utilitarian - the only form of vernacular in Australia - such as Kitchen Gardens, Orchards, Forestry Plantings, vineyard.
    Kemp's style: Picturesque (naturalistic)