Federation Windows

[previous page: Federation Roofs next page: Federation coloured glass]

Windows of Federation houses

  • were larger than those of preceding eras because large glass panes were cheaper
  • are timber framed and either side hinged (casement style) or double hung sashes
  • The front windows often feature Casement windows with leaded lights ('leadlight')
  • which used at least colour glass panels or decorative leadlight (with some stained glass)
  • Australiana was sometimes the subject of leadlight glass windows, but were usually an Art Nouveau design, produced by a local window maker

Five characteristic types of Federation Windows

  1. Bay windows were popular, providing perhaps a well-lit nook, or window seat internally. Most bay windows were placed in the front room, usually a master bedroom.
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    Bullseye window in Rosebery NSW, note fixed transom window over front door

    See Federation Bay Windows
  2. Awning windows were used for ventilation and privacy
  3. Transomwindows (US) or Fanlight windows (UK) are the windows above a door or fixed windows above the opening casement or sash windows
  4. Bullseye windows are a particular feature of Federation houses
  5. Porch windows, patterned glass walls made of panels of coloured glass, to screen the front verandah from side view

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Bullseye stained glass window
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Queen Anne fanlight window above casement set, and a bullseye under a gablet

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Federation Leadlight with stained glass inserts


Federation Casement Windows

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Unusual Leadlight Transom Windows in Rosebery, opening as an 'awning window'

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Fixed Coloured Glass Transoms in Haberfield


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Typical Federation sashed windows and verandah window in large coloured glass panels
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Unusual double bay-windows in Haberfield
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Randwick Oriel bay window

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Edwardian Sash Windows

from http://www.freepedia.co.uk/

Edwardian sash windows would often fix the upper multi pane but use a single pane of glass below to maximum the light into the room. Sash windows would often be painted in the Queen Anne style of white.

"The sash offered many advantages, including being better suited to the wet British climate, as it can be closed down to a narrow gap, allowing for good ventilation whilst reducing the chance of rain entering. Being contained within the box, the sashes are less susceptible to distortion and rot than a hinged casement adding greatly to their life span." Sash Window Specialist

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Bay Windows


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In 1894 the UK Building Act changed the regulations, so that windows no longer had to be flush with the exterior wall. This enabled windows to stand proud from the facade. The late Victorian and Edwardian period took advantage of the change in new building regulations and now presented their windows in bays. Medium and larger houses would often display double bay or bow windows.

A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room, either square or polygonal in plan. The angles most commonly used on the inside corners of the bay are 90, 135 and 150 degrees. Wikipedia

A bay window creates the illusion of a larger room. It also maximizes the amount of light entering a room and offers a dryer alternative to a balcony.

EdwardianThe sash window would tend to have the upper decorative multi pane section fixed and a single sliding pane of glass below to allow for more light. Sash windows would often be painted in the Queen Anne style of white. The Arts & Crafts style would sometimes use metal casements set within stone surround called mullioned windows.
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1920's - 1930'sCasement windows became the popular choice after the Edwardian period. These would be framed glass hung on hinges set within a frame made from wood or metal.
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Oriel Windows


A oriel window projects from the upper story of a building, supported on brackets or corbels. The Oriel window became popular feature in the late Victorian Arts & Craft houses and soon became a regular addition to many Edwardian homes.

"They are a good means of improving a view that is not too special but where the street has a pleasant view at the far end. Good examples are in seaside towns, where terraced houses may be crammed in a street but the view of the sea at the end is well worth seeing." Homebuilding & Renovating
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1901- 1920 Edwardian Doors


Edwardian houses were often built on wider plots so a side window sometimes flanked the main door letting in more light to the hallway. The front door was often large, panelled and painted with Art Nouveau or Neo-Georgian glass. It was popular to paint the doors red or green. By the Edwardian period most householders no longer had maids to scrub the step and polish the brass knockers so door furniture was finished with a maintenance free black coating. Steps were made of stone or covered with a simple sheet of metal.
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1920's Traditional Doors


The ideal look for a traditional home would have been heavy oak doors but often a more affordable choice was staining a cheaper wood. When doors were painted they would have been in dark colours of green and black with edges and panels picked out in cream.
Traditional style doors would have used cast iron door furniture. Handles would often be seen two thirds of the way up.
Decorative leadlight glass work would have been found in the top half of the door or as a sidelight.
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"The best way of finding the right style of front door is to look at the other houses in the neighbourhood. Chances are you'll see the original style for your house, but don't try and commit it to memory always take a photo of the other doors before you choose one for you." Channel 4 Homes

Casement Windows


Casement windows are hinged windows set in a fixed frame. They were often found alongside sash windows in Edwardian houses. In the 1930's there popularity increased and took over from the sash window. Casement windows were either painted wholly white or the frame was painted in a dark colour with the inner edge highlighted in white.
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Leadlight in Windows

Art Nouveau Leadlight
Art Nouveau stained glass
Art Nouveau stained glass

Art Nouveau stained glass
Art Nouveau stained glass

Art Nouveau stained glass
Art Nouveau stained glass

Art Nouveau stained glass
Art Nouveau stained glass
Edwardian
edwardian stained glass
edwardian stained glass

edwardian stained glass
edwardian stained glass

The Twenties - Traditional
Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Traditional twenties stained glass
Traditional twenties stained glass

Above from Freepedia

View Gallery of Traditional Leadlight Glass designs at the Leaded Rainbow

Phone: 9769 5924 | Address: 28 Lyall Rd Berwick, Vic 3806
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Arcadia restore and repair existing stained glass and leadlight panels from all these periods. They have a large stock of original glass, which we use for seamless matching wherever possible.

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Victorian
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Federation
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Art Nouveau
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Edwardian
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Art Dec
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Casement Windows
Casement windows are hinged windows set in a fixed frame. They were often found alongside sash windows in Edwardian houses. In the 1930's there popularity increased and took over from the sash window. Casement windows were either painted wholly white or the frame was painted in a dark colour with the inner edge highlighted in white.
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