Federation Chimneys

[previous page: Federation Roofs next page: Federation Windows]

Chimney-1.gif
Federation Heritage Chimney stack

Web-Randwick-eve025_edited.jpg
Federation chimney stack

Strathfield011_edited.JPG
Strathfield rendered Stack

Web-Randwick-Cowper039.jpg
Randwick double stack
Strathfield050_edited.JPG
Strathfield Filigree Stacks

Randwick-Cowper032_edited.JPG
Randwick heritage roofscape
Strathfield008_edited.JPG
Strathfield original stack!

See also this Flickr photo sequence:
A Federation Queen Anne Stuccoed Brick Villa (album)
external image 12022825085_6dfcdecd45_s.jpgexternal image 12023125493_bc243f4679_s.jpg
external image 12023185544_b331e0beda_s.jpg
external image 12023119983_5c2964f1dd_s.jpg
external image 12022825085_6dfcdecd45_b.jpg

A Federation Queen Anne Stuccoed Brick Villa - Ballarat
Sitting proudly behind its original red and brown clinker brick fence, this wonderful large Edwardian villa featuring a complex roofline, Art Nouveau stylised chimney, half timbered gabling and stained glass may be found in the provincial Victorian city of Ballarat.
Built around the turn of the Twentieth Century, this sprawling villa has been built in the Federation Queen Anne style, which was mostly a residential style inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement in England, but also encompassed some of the more stylised elements of Art Nouveau, which gave it an more decorative look. The rough cast stuccoed brick wall treatment is in keeping with the Arts and Crafts movement, as is the use of red feature bricks and the shungling above the villa's bay windows. Yet the stylised chimney with its sinewy curves is Art Nouveau in design, as are some of the stained glass windows.
Queen Anne style was most popular around the time of Federation. With complex roofline structures, ornamental towers of unusual proportions and undulating facades, many Queen Anne houses fell out of fashion at the beginning of the modern era, and were demolished.
This chimney has two flues and a firebox instead of an open hearth (much more efficient for getting heat from fuel)
This chimney has two flues and a firebox instead of an open hearth (much more efficient for getting heat from fuel)



Chimney Components Explained

If you are planning on having a fire or stove, you’ll need to understand the inner workings of a chimney. With the help of a detailed diagram, we guide you through the chimney, from flue to hearth.


NB: The diagram below dissects a masonry chimney with one flue. A chimney may in fact contain more than one flue, and its type is dictated by the heat-producing appliance required. To open up an old chimney, the flue must be cleaned and inspected by a professional chimneysweep, and possibly relined to meet regulations.

1. Flue lining: An approved fire-resistant material which lines the inside of the FLUE, usually made of refractory concrete or impervious clay, but sometimes metal. All chimneys have to be built with a flue lining to protect the masonry from combustion gases, of which the lining also improves the flow. It was not uncommon for old flues to be pargeted (lined) with lime mortar as the chimney was erected, but many were not lined at all. There are two types of liner: Class 1 (solid fuel) and Class 2 (gas).
2. Flue: A vertical pipe or duct that provides a safe pathway for heat, smoke and other combustion byproducts away from the fireplace. Lies within the interior of the chimney. Flues must be high enough to ensure sufficient draught — around 4.5m in most cases.
3. Flue connector: Connects the fireplace to the FLUE. Bends shouldn’t exceed 45°, to enable them to be swept clean.
4. Smoke chamber: The space directly above the DAMPER, where the smoke ‘gathers’ before passing into the FLUE.
5. Combustion air inlet: The fire must be supplied with air from outside the home in order to safely burn fuel; this inlet controls the quantity of the air supplied for combustion.
Cross section of a chimney
Cross section of a chimney

6. Hearth: A base that isolates a heat-producing appliance from people and combustible items. The hearth’s thickness is dependent upon the appliance.
7. Firebrick: Laid masonry of refractory brick forming the rear and side walls of a fireplace. Refractory bricks are made of a ceramic material built primarily to withstand high temperatures.
8. Gather: A narrow opening between the outlet of the fireplace and FLUE, over which a DAMPER is usually situated, to improve draught and reduce pressure in the SMOKE CHAMBER.
9. Smoke shelf: A horizontal surface directly behind the DAMPER of a fireplace to prevent downdraughts. It also helps the chimney draw the smoke up into the FLUE.
10. Damper: Also called a ‘throat’. A pivoted or sliding metal flap in the FLUE that regulates the amount of draught, preventing excessive variations. It can also close off the fireplace from the outside of the house, preventing air loss when the fireplace is not in use. Sometimes it is located on the appliance.
- See more at: http://www.homebuilding.co.uk/design/choosing-products/stoves-fires/chimneys-explained#sthash.lJZ8yTWc.dpuf

Common Parts of Your Chimney Explained


If you are like most people, you chimney is just a way that smoke from your fireplace exits your home. All the pieces and parts of your chimney are simply a mystery. But, like your car, dishwasher and other things you use on a daily basis, there is more than meets the eye. The reality is that there are many components to your chimney and its important to understand and maintain them properly for a healthy and safe home.
Here’s a brief diagram with commonly used terms for your chimney
components of your chimney
components of your chimney


Chimney Crown is the mortar or concrete at the top of a chimney. It seals off the air space between the outer walls of a masonry chimney and the flue liner. It slopes away from the liner to shed water.
Flue is the passage in a chimney for conveying flue gases to the outside air.
Smoke Chamber is the chamber in a fireplace directly above the smoke shelf and extending to the base of the flue.
Smoke Shelf is the area at the bottom of the smoke chamber and is the back wall of the firebox. The shelf is located at the intersection of the smoke chamber and the firebox. Typically thee is a damper on the forward side of the smoke shelf.
Lintel is the horizontal non-combustible component, usually of masonry or steel, spanning the opening of a masonry fireplace to support the load above.
Ash Dump (Ash Pit) is an opening, usually with a hinge door and located at the bottom of the fireplace, where ashes can be dumped. Also , it can be the receptacle below the opening in which ashes collect before removal.
Damper is a valve, usually a movable or retractable plate, for controlling the flow of air or smoke.
Firebox is the section of a masonry fireplace that includes the firebrick, lintel, and damper. This is the combustion area of a fireplace where the fire is contained.
Firebrick is brick composed of clay and silica and designed to withstand high temperatures such as those found in a firebox.
Hearth is the floor area within the firebox of a fireplace or a fireplace stove.Foundation
Chimney Cap is the protective covering or housing for the top of a chimney intended for preventing the entry of rain, snow, animals, birds, etc., and for preventing downdrafts. Chimney caps are also called flue caps or rain caps.
Flashing is a sheet metal or other materials used in waterproofing roof valleys, hips, or the angle between a chimney and a roof.
Firestop is a horizontal fire-blockade constructed of non-combustible materials (usually sheet metal or gypsum board) and/or plywood of a minimum thickness
Chimney is one or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying flue gases from the appliance to the outside atmosphere.
Fireplace is the hearth, firebox (or similarly prepared place) and a chimney.

Some typical chimney problems

The following are some of the most frequently encountered problems which are the result of inefficient or deteriorating chimneys. Read about some likely causes for these problems. You can also download ourLaymans Guide to Chimney Problems as a PDF. You may need Adobe Acrobat Reader to open the PDF file.
The fire is not drawing properly
This is usually the result of a cold or an obstructed flue or it can arise from insufficient height relative to the ridge of the roof or an adjacent building. Large unnecessary voids at the base of the chimney may also stop the fire drawing properly. Sometimes double glazing and very efficient draught excluders around doors, etc, may prevent an adequate flow of air for the fire to work correctly.
The fire is not drawing properly
The fire is not drawing properly

The fire creates excessive soot
This usually means a lazy and inefficient flue although some bituminous coals are particularly prone to this. Such a flue may not be the right diameter for the fire or stove, or may not be satisfactorily insulated so that the fumes do not rise fast enough and therefore create soot deposits. Excessive soot and tar can be a considerable fire hazard, particularly if the chimney structure has deteriorated; or where, on 19th century property for example, floor joists have been built into the stack, when the whole house can be at risk.
The fire creates excessive soot
The fire creates excessive soot

Mortar falls into the fireplace
Bits of brick or mortar falling down the flue indicate a serious deterioration in the chimney structure. Such deterioration normally occurs from the inside of the flue but if there is any indication of weakness on the outside of the chimney then attention is obviously necessary.
Mortar falls into the fireplace
Mortar falls into the fireplace

There are fumes in the rooms
These may not be easily detected on closed appliances although if, with an open fire, the chimney smokes back into the room they are then obvious. Fumes contain carbon monoxide and are dangerous. Where there are leaks in the chimney the fumes can find their way into upstairs rooms and attics. Sometimes a tell-tale smoke stain around the edge of a carpet shows the presence of fumes.
There are fumes in the room
There are fumes in the room

The chimney breast feels hot
This means that the chimney has deteriorated and may be dangerous. A hot wall in the room above may be a similar symptom. If stains also appear on the chimney breast this is a sign that tar or acids have condensed and are eating into the chimney mortar and brickwork.
The chimney breast feels hot
The chimney breast feels hot

The fire or stove is using too much fuel
Large uninsulated flues require a lot of heat and fuel to make them draw. In particular high efficiency modern appliances have only a relatively small outlet pipe for the fumes. If these discharge into a much larger uninsulated flue, their rise can be decelerated to the point when the appliance just will not draw. An insulated flue of the correct size is required to ensure that an adequate draught is created for them to burn as their designers intended. Otherwise they will use too much fuel and the slow moving fumes will also condense into acids which will attack the internal surface of the chimney.
The fire or stove is using too much fuel
The fire or stove is using too much fuel

Fire Risk?
Tar and soot deposits are a considerable fire risk; combine this with poor chimney structure or floor joists built up into the stack and the whole house is at risk.
Is your chimney a fire risk?
Is your chimney a fire risk?

CICO Chimney Linings Ltd. Telephone 01986 784044
Email CICO@chimney-problems.co.uk
Company Registered in England No. 1617558.
Registered Office: Blyth House, Rendham Road, Saxmundham, Suffolk. IP17 1WA

Chimney Covers

external image chimney-cover-86.jpg
Having a chimney cover on your chimney is not only stylish but it’s a huge safety precaution.
  • Every year there are thousands of fires that are started because burning embers rise up through the uncapped chimney and land on the roof or yard.
  • Simply putting a flat screen on top of a chimney is very dangerous. This is due to the fact that since the screen is flat debris can pile up on top of it clogging it and backing up the chimney as well.
  • Also a chimney cover helps protect the chimney from the elements. Water can cause great unknown damage to a chimney by soaking into the bricks and eating away at the mortar, chimney liner, and mortar crown

Read more:http://www.doityourself.com/stry/chimney-cover#ixzz3OOpmo3gj

VAT Number: GB372955911